RFID Technology


RFID or Radio Frequency Identification is an automatic identification method, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or transponders. RFID tag is a product that can be applied to or incorporated into an object, animal, or person for the purpose of identification using radio frequency waves. Some tags can be read from several meters away and beyond the line of sight of the reader.

Most RFID tags contain at least two parts. One is an integrated circuit for storing and processing information, modulating and demodulating a (RF) signal, and other specialized functions. The second is an antenna for receiving and transmitting the signal. It's non-contact, non-line-of-sight nature along with its ability to track moving objects has clearly established RFID as a superior alternative to any other identification technology available in the market.

Consequently, RFID technology is being deployed at a mind-boggling pace across the world in industrial, consumer and military applications. In addition to product tracking, RFID has established itself in other markets such as surveillance, livestock identification and automatic vehicle identification systems and further proliferation of this technology across a range of applications is inevitable. Developments in RFID technology continue to yield larger memory capacities, wider reading ranges, and faster processing.

At APK-ID, we recognize the immense potential that RFID offers and understand the need to provide customized, reliable and affordable solutions to our customers. Employing a combination of automatic and manual manufacturing processes, we specialize in providing customized manufacturing solutions to RFID system integrators and card manufacturers around the world.

RFID technology can be split into three basic groups according to the type of a frequency used

RFID frequency bands

Low Frequency (LF) High Frequency (HF) Ultra High Frequecny (UHF)
Resonance frequency 125 kHz
134.2 kHz
13.56 MHz 860MHz to 960Mhz
Operating distance up to 1 m up to 1.5 m up to 15 m
ISO standard 11784/85
14223
18000-2
14443 A/B
15693
LEGIC ®
18000-3
18000-6C
EPC Class1 Gen2
Application areas Access Control, ID Card, Livestock tracking
Industrial Tracking, Waste Management etc.
ATM cards, Payments, E-passport, Loyalty cards
Access and security, Industrial Tracking etc.
Warehousing, logistics, Industrial Tracking
Livestock tracking, Parking Management
Jewellery Management etc.

Low Frequency RFID

Low Frequency RFID tags operate at 125 KHz and 134.2 KHz. The tags are governed by ISO 11784/85, ISO 14223, and ISO/IEC 18000-2. Low frequency tags have a long wave-length and are better able to penetrate thin metallic substances.
LF tags are ideal for reading objects with high liquid contents, such as livestock, fruits and vegetables, beverages etc but the read range is limited to few centimeters. Typical LF RFID applications include access control, livestock tracking & identification, cylinder tracking, asset tracking etc.

High Frequency RFID

High Frequency RFID tags works at 13.56MHz and is readable up to few centimeters (reader and tag dependent). These tags work fairly well on objects made of metal and can work around goods with medium to high water content.
However High Frequency tags finds most use in security and payment applications due to it enhanced chip protocol and functionality. Thanks to ISO 14443-A/B, it makes the chip more secure and ideal to be used in ATM cards, E-passport, Loyalty cards, Access and security tags etc.. High frequency tags follow either ISO 14443 or ISO 15693.

Ultra-High Frequency RFID

Ultra High Frequency tags works typically at 865-868 MHz (EU) and 902-928MHZ (FCC). The UHF frequency band is regulated by a single global standard called the ECP global Gen2 (ISO 18000-6C) UHF standard.
Due to their high data transfer rate, UHF RFID tags are well suited for many items at once, such as boxes of goods as they pass through a dock door into a warehouse or racers as they cross a finish line. Also, due to the longer read range, other common UHF RFID applications include electronic toll collection and parking access control.

NFC RFID

Near field communication (NFC) is a set of communication protocols that enable two electronic devices, one of which is usually a portable device such as a smartphone, to establish communication by bringing them within 4 cm (2 in) of each other. NFC-enabled portable devices can be provided with apps, for example to read electronic tags or make payments when connected to an NFC-compliant apparatus. Earlier close-range communication used technology that was proprietary to the manufacturer, for applications such as stock ticket, access control and payment readers.
NFC standards cover communications protocols and data exchange formats, and are based on existing RFID standards including ISO/IEC 14443 and FeliCa.[4] The standards include ISO/IEC 18092[5] and those defined by the NFC Forum.